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**Basic Finance**

How to Calculate EBIT (Operating Profit)?

Calculating Net Profit Before Tax

Calculating Net Profit After Tax

Earnings Available for Common Stockholders

**Financial Ratios**

**Activity Ratios:**

**Liquidity Ratios:**

**Debt Ratios:**

Times Interest Earned Ratio (Interest Coverage Ratio)

**Profitability Ratios:**

How to Calculate EPS (Earnings per Share)?

Return on total assets (ROA) or return on investment (ROI)

**Capital Budgeting**

International Capital Budgeting Decisions

Capital Budgeting and Cash Flows

Initial Investment in Capital Budgeting Decisions

Terminal Cash Flow in Capital Budgeting Decisions

Unsophisticated Capital Budgeting Techniques

Sophisticated Capital Budgeting Techniques

Internal Rate of Return method (IRR)

The Difference Between IRR and NPV

Equivalent Annual Annuity Approach (EAA)

NPV and Profitability Index: Problem and Solution

Risk Scenario Analysis: Dealing with Risk in Capital Budgeting

Risk Adjusted Discount Rate: Dealing with Risk in Capital Budgeting

Annualized Net Present Value (ANPV)

**Leverage**

Degree of Total Leverage (DTL)

Break-Even Analysis (Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis)

**Capital Structure**

Capital Structure Decisions Analysis with Debt Ratios

EBIT-EPS Capital Structure Approach

**Cost of Capital**

Finding the After-Tax Cost of Preferred Stock (rp)

Finding the Specific After-Tax Cost of Common Stock (rp)

Gordon Model (Constant-Growth Valuation Model)

Using CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model)

Finding the After-Tax Cost of Retained Earnings (rr)

Finding After-Tax Cost of Issuing New Common Stock (rn)

(WACC) Weighted average cost of capital (ra)

Weighted Marginal Cost of Capital (WMCC)

Weighted Marginal Cost of Capital (WMCC) and Investment Opportunities Schedule

**Dividends**

Importance of Dividends and Dividend Policy

Declaring and Payment of Dividends

Factors Favouring Higher and Lower Dividends

Establishing a Dividend Policy

Dividend Policies and Dividend Payout Ratio

Stock Splits and Reverse Stock Splits

Stock Repurchases (Share Buyback)

Agency Problem and Agency Costs

**Leasing**

Advantages & Disadvantages of Leasing

Financial Lease (Capital Lease)

Purchase versus Lease Decision

**Corporate Restructuring**

Types of Corporate Restructuring

8 Specific Motives for Mergers and Acquisitions

Establishing a Value for the Target Company

Finding the Market Price Ratio of Exchange

Hostile Takeover (Hostile Merger) Defence Strategies

**Other Related Concepts**