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Using a Financial Calculator

Basic Finance

Income Statement Format

Calculating Gross Profit

How to Calculate EBIT (Operating Profit)?

Calculating Net Profit Before Tax

Calculating Net Profit After Tax

Earnings Available for Common Stockholders

Financial Ratios

Overview of Financial Ratios

Activity Ratios:

Total Asset Turnover

Inventory Turnover Analysis

Average Collection Period

Average Payment Period

Liquidity Ratios:

Current Ratio Analysis

Acid-Test Ratio

Debt Ratios:

The Debt Ratio

Debt-Equity Ratio Analysis

Fixed Payment Coverage Ratio

Times Interest Earned Ratio (Interest Coverage Ratio)

Profitability Ratios:

Gross Profit Margin Ratio

Operating Profit Margin Ratio

Net Profit Margin Ratio

How to Calculate EPS (Earnings per Share)?

Return on total assets (ROA) or return on investment (ROI)

Capital Budgeting

Overview of Capital Budgeting

Capital Budgeting Techniques

Discounted Cash Flows

International Capital Budgeting Decisions

Capital Budgeting and Cash Flows

Initial Investment in Capital Budgeting Decisions

Operating Cash Inflows

Terminal Cash Flow in Capital Budgeting Decisions

Unsophisticated Capital Budgeting Techniques

Sophisticated Capital Budgeting Techniques

Net Present Value Method

Internal Rate of Return method (IRR)

The Difference Between IRR and NPV

Equivalent Annual Annuity Approach (EAA)

Profitability index (PI)

NPV and Profitability Index: Problem and Solution

Risk in Capital Budgeting

Risk Scenario Analysis: Dealing with Risk in Capital Budgeting

Risk Adjusted Discount Rate: Dealing with Risk in Capital Budgeting

Annualized Net Present Value (ANPV)

Capital Rationing



Operating Leverage

Financial Leverage

Degree of Total Leverage (DTL)

Break-Even Analysis (Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis)

Capital Structure

Capital Structure Decisions

Capital Structure Decisions Analysis with Debt Ratios

Optimal Capital Structure

EBIT-EPS Capital Structure Approach

Pecking Order Theory

Cost of Capital

The Cost of Capital

Long Term Sources of Finance

Cost of Long Term Debt

Finding the After-Tax Cost of Preferred Stock (rp)

Finding the Specific After-Tax Cost of Common Stock (rp)

Gordon Model (Constant-Growth Valuation Model)

Using CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model)

Finding the After-Tax Cost of Retained Earnings (rr)

Finding After-Tax Cost of Issuing New Common Stock (rn)

(WACC) Weighted average cost of capital (ra)

Weighted Marginal Cost of Capital (WMCC) 

Break Point

Weighted Marginal Cost of Capital (WMCC) and Investment Opportunities Schedule


Book Value Per Share

Importance of Dividends and Dividend Policy

Declaring and Payment of Dividends

Residual Theory of Dividends

Dividend Irrelevance Theory

Dividend Relevance Theory

Factors Favouring Higher and Lower Dividends

Establishing a Dividend Policy

Dividend Policies and Dividend Payout Ratio

Stock Splits and Reverse Stock Splits

Stock Repurchases (Share Buyback)

Agency Problem and Agency Costs



Advantages & Disadvantages of Leasing

Operating Leases

Financial Lease (Capital Lease)

Purchase versus Lease Decision

Corporate Restructuring

Corporate Restructuring

Types of Corporate Restructuring

8 Specific Motives for Mergers and Acquisitions

Types of Mergers

Leveraged Buyouts (LBOs)

Divestiture (Divestment)

Establishing a Value for the Target Company

Stock Swap

Finding the Market Price Ratio of Exchange

Merger Negotiations

Hostile Takeover (Hostile Merger) Defence Strategies

Holding Companies

Other Related Concepts

Business Failure


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