Book value per share is a value that common stock holders would have received if all assets of the firm were sold for its accounting value and if all liabilities were settled and residual value divided among common stock holders.
In other words, it is a book value of the firm (the net worth of the company, which is assets minus liabilities) divided by the number of shares of common stock outstanding.
The following formula is used to calculate book value per share:
Book value per share = TA-TL/Number of shares of common stock outstanding
Where TA is Total Assets and TL is total liabilities.
Book value per share method is criticized because it relies on historical data and does not take into account the future-expected earnings of the firm. Therefore, it does not reflect the real market value of the firm.
Another way to evaluate risk of the project is to undertake scenario analysis.
Scenario analysis focus on developing few alternative scenarios and evaluating variability between returns, which can be measured by net present value (NPV).
For example, we can generate 3 scenarios (optimistic, most likely and pessimistic) and than find NPVs for each of the scenarios. When we know net present values for each scenario, we can find the range.
The range here is found by taking NPV of optimistic outcome less NPV of pessimistic outcome, as shown below:
range (1) = NPV of optimistic outcome – NPV of pessimistic outcome
Alternatively, the range is found by taking annual cash inflow from optimistic outcome and subtracting annual cash inflow from pessimistic outcome, as shown below:
range (2) = annual cash inflow from optimistic outcome – annual cash inflow from pessimistic outcome
Range shows us variability between returns.