Dividend policy refers to the policy which is used as a guide when a firm makes dividend decisions. It assists the board of directors in establishing how much should be paid to shareholders in dividends.
Dividend policy should be established in such a way that it provides for adequate financing for the firm. Dividend policy must also be aligned with the main objective of the firm which is to maximize shareholders’ wealth.
Investors tend to prefer stable increasing dividends as opposed to fluctuating dividends.
Factors which affect dividend policy
There are number of external and internal factors which affect dividend policy.
External factors which affect dividend policy
Contractual constraints – refer to restrictive provisions in a loan agreement and may include dollar or percentage of earnings limit on dividends and an inability to make dividend payments until certain levels of earnings is reached.
Legal constraints – this type of constraints depends on the location of the firm. Usually, due to legal constraints, firms are not able to pay out any dividends if the firm has any overdue liabilities or if it is bankrupt.
Firm also cannot pay any part of par value of common stock. Sometimes, in addition to the inability to pay any part of par value of common stock, firm also may not pay any part of paid-in capital in excess of par.
Market reactions – a firm needs to consider how markets will react to its dividend decisions. For example, if dividends are not paid or decreasing then markets will see it as a negative signal and the stock price will likely to drop. This will decrease shareholders’ wealth. If dividends are paid out consistently or even increasing in amounts, this can be seen as a positive signal by the market participants and stock price will likely to increase. This will increase shareholders’ wealth.
Shareholders generally prefer fixed or increasing dividends. This decreases uncertainty and investors are likely to use lower rate at which earnings will be discounted. This will lead to an appreciation of share and an increase in shareholders’ wealth.
Current and expected state of the economy – If state of the economy is uncertain or heading downward than it may be wise for management to pay smaller or no dividends to prepare a safety reserve for the company which can help to deal with future negative economic conditions.
However, if the economy is growing very fast then the firm may have more acceptable investments to take advantage of. It can be best not to distribute dividends but rather use these funds for investments.
Changes in government policies and state of the industry must also be taken into account.
Internal factors which affect dividend policy
Financing needs of the firm – Mature firms usually have better access to external financing. Therefore, they are more likely to pay out a large portion of earnings in dividends. If a company is young and rapidly growing than it will likely be unable to pay a large portion of earnings in dividends as it will require retained earnings to finance acceptable projects and its access to external financing is likely to be limited.
Preference of the shareholders – a firm should consider the needs and interests of the majority of its shareholders when making dividend decisions. For example, if shareholders will be able to earn higher returns by investing individually then what firm can earn by reinvesting funds than a higher dividend payment should be considered.
If the firm will have to issue more stock to be able to pay out dividends than it may be in the best interest of the current stakeholders not to issue dividends to avoid potential dilution of ownership. Dilution of ownership occurs because after issuing of additional stock, retained earnings will have to be distributed over a larger amount of the shareholders. This leads to dilution of earnings for existing shareholders. This also leads to dilution of control.
Firms also need to consider the wealth level of the majority of its shareholders. If the majority of shareholders are lower income earners than they likely will need dividend income and will prefer payment of dividends. However, if the majority of shareholders are high income earners then they will likely to prefer appreciation of share as it will defer tax payment even if the tax applicable on dividends and capital gains is the same, as in US after 2003 Tax Act.
Interestingly, in an efficient market, preferences of the shareholders should be met by price mechanism. If dividend payments are lower than required by many investors than those investors will sell their shares. Share prices will drop and this will raise an investors’ expected return. Higher expected return will increase the weighted marginal cost of capital and intersection between IOS and WMCC schedules will occur at a lower optimal capital budget point. Due to higher WMCC, fewer of the projects will be acceptable and more of the retained earnings can be paid out as dividends. Therefore the owners’ preferences are satisfied by price mechanism.
Stability of earnings – If earnings of the company are not stable from period to period than it is wise to follow conservative payments of dividends.
Earnings requirement – this constraint is imposed by the firm. It consists of a firm not being able to pay out in dividends more than the sum of the current and the most recent past retained earnings. However, the firm still can pay out dividends even if it incurred losses in the current financial period.
One of the reasons firms may want to pay dividends in years when the firm incurred a loss is to send positive signal to the market indicating that the loss is only a temporary phenomenon and that the company has its operations under control. Otherwise, shareholders may start selling shares which will decrease price of the shares and even further decrease wealth of the owners of the company (shareholders).
Lack of adequate cash and cash equivalents – occurs when firm do not have adequate cash and cash equivalents, such as marketable securities, to make dividend payments. Borrowing with intention to use funds to pay out dividends is usually not welcomed by lenders because the use of funds is not aligned with activity that would help firm to pay back debt to the lender. Borrowing to pay dividends is also usually not a wise business decision.
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