Establishing a Value for the Target Company

An acquiring company may be interested in acquiring entire business or just acquiring individual assets and selling off the rest of the assets. When considering a merger, companies can use capital budgeting techniques to find the value of the company. If the net present value of the relevant cash flows is positive then a merger is considered acceptable.

If the acquiring company is interested in the whole business rather than in just few assets of the target company then post-merger pro forma statements for the target company should be prepared and the cost of capital of the acquiring company must be adjusted to reflect the cost of capital of the target company.

Test yourself:

ABC Company would like to obtain assets of BCD Company. BCD Company is a loss maker, it made losses over the last 4 years. However, it has three assets which ABC needs for its operations which are assets a, b and c. BCD is not willing to sell the assets separately but willing to sell the entire company for $95,000. According to the balance sheet of BCD:

  • asset a is worth $25,000
  • asset b is worth $20,000
  • asset c is worth $50,000
  • BCD also has $5,000 in cash, $12,000 in accounts receivable, and $5,000 in relatively obsolete inventory
  • ABC found out that they can sell accounts receivable and inventory of BCD for $10,000
  • BCD’s liabilities account for $70,000
  • After the merger, three assets of BCD will generate $15,000 in cash inflows over the next 10 years
  • ABC’s cost of capital is 12%

How should ABC establish if it should undertake this investment?

Solution:

BCD requires $95,000. Out of this money, $70,000 will be used to cover liabilities and $25,000 will be going to the owners of the target company. ABC will be able to recover $10,000 from selling accounts receivable and inventory and it will also obtain $5,000 in cash. Therefore, its actual investment is $80,000 ($95,000-10,000-5,000).

Next we need to determine the net present value of the relevant cash flows. Since it is an annuity, we can calculate it very simply. We will use a financial calculator. The calculation is as follows:

PMT: 15,000

N: 10

I: 12

PV: calculate = 84,753

Since investment required is $80,000, we can find the NPV as follows:

84,753 – 80,000 = 4,753

There is another way to calculate NPV using a financial calculator. It is advisable to try them both to make sure that the answer you obtain is correct. The second way is as follows:

CF0: -80,000

CF1: 15,000

Second function Nj: 10

I: 10

Second function NPV: calculate = $4,753

Since both calculations gave us the same answer, we can be confident that the answer is correct.

Since NPV is $4,753 which is higher than zero, a merger with BCD is acceptable.

 

Capital Rationing

Many firms operate under capital rationing. Firms ration capital because more often than not firms do not have unlimited funds to invest. Therefore, not all acceptable projects can be actually accepted. This is, of course, contradictory with goal of maximizing shareholders value.

We can formally define the rationing of capital as follows: It is a situation when firms do not accept all acceptable projects due to a limited amount of funds or due to limits imposed on investments. The goal is to select portfolio of projects with the highest net present value.

Under situations involving scarce capital, businesses will select a portfolio of projects with the highest NPV and which does not exceed the allocated budget. There are two commonly used techniques to select projects in these situations, the net present value NPV approach and the internal rate of return (IRR) approach.

The IRR approach graphs return against the total investment on the investment opportunities schedule (IOS) and by drawing the budget constraint shows the group of projects that are acceptable to be invested in. The NPV approach ranks projects by IRR and than generates a portfolio of projects with the highest overall present value.

When selecting projects, the net present value (NPV) approach is preferred because it maximizes shareholders’ returns whereas an internal rate of return (IRR) approach just generates a portfolio of acceptable projects.

 

Annualized Net Present Value (ANPV)

The annualized Net Present Value (ANPV) technique is the best method to use when comparing mutually exclusive projects which have unequal duration. ANPV is the most efficient technique to convert Net Present Values (NPVs) of projects with unequal duration into an ANPV for each specific project, which can then be compared.

To find ANPV, the following calculation must be made:

1 – Find NPVs for each project

2 – Divide the NPV of each project by PVIFAr,n (Present Value Interest Factor for Annuity) at the project’s required cost of capital and number of periods. The amount for PVIFAr,n can be found in financial tables.

3 – The project with the higher Annualized Net Present Value (ANPV) is preferred.

Alternatively, ANPV can be found by using a financial calculator, as shown below:

PV = use NPV

N = Number of periods over the duration of the project (e.g. number of years)

I = required cost of capital (e.g. 10%)

Find PMT = this will be the annualized net present value (ANPV)

Test yourself


ABC Corporation has two mutually exclusive projects A and B that it can invest in. Initial investments investments required for project A and B are $150,000 and $200,000 respectively. The duration of project A is 4 years and of project B is 3 years. Expected annual cash inflows from project A are $40,000 and from project B is $70,000. The terminal cash flows from projects A and B are $21,000 and $34,000 respectively. The cost of capital of ABC Corporation is 9% and both projects have an average risk, which means that alteration for risk adjusted discount rate is not required. The 9% for cost of capital should be used for both projects.

What is the ANPV for projects A and B?

SOLUTION:

By using a financial calculator, we can find the solution to this problem. First we need to establish the net present value (NPVs) for projects A and B.

NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV) FOR PROJECT A:

Clear calculator: second function, “C ALL”

CFo: -150,000

CF1: 40,000

CF2: 40,000

CF3: 40,000

CF4: 61,000 (40,000 + 21,000)

I: 9

Second function, NPV: 5,534.28

NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV) FOR PROJECT B:

Clear calculator: second function, “C ALL”

CFo: -200,000

CF1: 70,000

CF2: 70,000

CF3: 104,000 (70,000 + 34,000)

I: 9

Second function, NPV: 3,444.86

However, because the projects have different duration, we need to convert Net Present Values (NPVs) found above into ANPV for each project.

CONVERTING NPV TO ANPV FOR PROJECT A:

Clear calculator: second function, C ALL

PV: – 5,534.28

N: 4

I: 9

Find PMT: $1,708.26

CONVERTING NPV TO ANPV FOR PROJECT B:

Clear calculator: second function, C ALL

PV: – 3,444.86

N: 3

I: 9

Find PMT: $1,360.91

Since the ANPV of project A ($1,708.26) is higher than that of project B ($1,360.91), project A should be selected.

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Risk Adjusted Discount Rate: Dealing with Risk in Capital Budgeting

Breakeven cash inflow analyses, risk adjusted discount rate (RADR) and scenario analyses are tools that facilitate better insight into managing risk in capital budgeting.

Risk in capital budgeting especially refers to variability of the returns (variability of cash inflows), because the initial investment is more or less known with some level of confidence. Therefore, we need to ensure that present value (PV) of cash inflows will be large enough to ensure that project is acceptable.

To adjust the present value of future cash inflows for risk embodied in particular project, we can either adjust cash inflow directly or we can adjust the discount rate. Because adjusting cash inflow is highly subjective, we will rather adjust discount rate. This is when risk adjusted discount rate technique comes into play.

RADR is a discount rate that must be earned to compensate an investor for the risk undertaken. Under RADR the value of the firm must be at least maintained or must increase. Risk adjusted discount rate is the most popular risk adjustment technique that utilize NPV.

The higher is the risk of specific project, the higher RADR will be.

The deployment of RADR is best illustrated by the use of an example:

EXAMPLE

Amanda can invest in two shares, A and B. Both shares presently cost $50 and Amanda wants to hold shares for 4 years. Annual dividends from share A expected to be $7. Annual dividends from share B are expected to be $12. However, shares B are more risky. In 4 years time Amanda expects to be able to sale shares A for $55 each and shares B for $70 each. Amanda’s required return is 8%. However, for shares B she adjusts her return so that her risk adjusted discount rate becomes 12%. Calculate risk adjusted net present values (NPVs) of shares A and B and recommend which shares should Amanda purchase.

Solution:

We will use financial calculator to find risk adjusted net present values (NPVs) of shares A and B.

Risk adjusted NPV of shares A:

Clear calculator: second function, C ALL

CFo: -50

CF1: 7

CF2: 7

CF3: 7

CF4: 62 (7+55)

I: 8

Second function, NPV: $15.38

Risk adjusted NPV of shares B:

Clear calculator: second function, C ALL

CFo: -50

CF1: 12

CF2: 12

CF3: 12

CF4: 82 (12+70)

I: 12

Second function, NPV: $30.94

Since investment in shares B offers higher risk adjusted NPV, Amanda should choose to invest in shares B.

The main difficulty in using risk adjusted discount rate (RADR) technique is in determining level of risk and approximating an appropriate risk adjusted discount rate (RADR). There is currently no systematic way to adjust required return to risk adjusted discount rate (RADR). Management usually determines risk adjusted discount rate (RADR) subjectively.

Sometimes risk index is determined which reflects risk adjusted discount rate (RADR) for every subsequent level of risk. For example, risk can be categorized into below average, average, above average and very high. Past experience and CAPM can be used to subjectively determine the risk adjusted discount rate (RADR) appropriate for each subsequent level (category) of risk.

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Net Present Value Method

Sophisticated capital budgeting techniques include Net present value method (NPV), Internal Rate of Return method (IRR), Profitability index (PI) and Equivalent Annual Annuity (EAA). NPV is discussed below.

NPV is a sophisticated capital budgeting technique. Theoretically, Net Present Value (NPV) is the best technique out of sophisticated capital budgeting techniques but it is difficult to use it in practice. Sometimes Net Present Value method is referred to as the “gold standard” for investment decisions.

It is very easy to use Net Present Value with the help of a financial calculator if all necessary data is available. However, it is important to firstly understand the logic behind this calculation. NPV is determined by finding present value of cash inflows and then subtracting an initial investment.

NPV=Present value of cash inflows – initial investment

Now, after we understand the logic behind usage of Net Present Value method, we can calculate NPV using a financial calculator. We will always use a HP 10bll financial calculator throughout the website. Other calculators are similar but may have some small differences.

Before you make any calculations, make sure that you:

1 – Clear the calculator – by pressing the second function followed by “C All”

2 – Ensure that it is set for end if cash flows occur at the end of the period and that it is set for beginning if cash flows occur at the beginning of the period.

To set for end/beginning – press second function followed by beg/end. If it is set for the beginning than word “begin” will be displayed. If it is set for the end than no word will be displayed.

Majority of calculations will be with the “end” setting (used when cash flows occur at the end of the period). Therefore, it is important to acquire a habit of re-setting your calculator to the “end” setting after every calculation with the “begin” setting. Otherwise, you are running a risk of forgetting to re-set the calculator and obtaining an incorrect result from future calculations.

NPV FOR ANNUITY IS CALCULATED AS FOLLOWS:

Initial investment: amount, minus sign, CFi

Annual cash inflow: amount, CFi1

Number of periods: number of periods, second function, Ni

Cost of capital: number, i

Find NPV: second function, NPV

NPV FOR A MIXED STREAM IS CALCULATED AS FOLLOWS:

Initial investment: amount, minus sign, CFi

Put in amount for each cash inflow separately following with CFi1, CFi2 etc

Cost of capital: number, i

Find NPV: second function, NPV

If NPV is higher than zero than we know that this project will earn returns higher than the business’s cost of capital. Further, the owner’s wealth will increase by the amount equal to NPV.

Test yourself


ABC Corporation has an option to invest in projects A. Project A has aninitial investment of $15,000, and operating cash inflows of $3,000 over the economic life of the project, which is 8 years. The cost of capital (also called discount rate or rate of return) is 8%.

Find the net present value (NPV) of project A?

SOLUTION:

With the use of a financial calculator, we can find the net present value (NPV) as follows:

Clear the calculator by pressing second function followed by “C ALL”.

Make sure calculator is set to the “end”. This setting is used because in this problem cash flows occur at the end of each period. It is commonly accepted that if problem does not state when cash flows occur, you need to assume that cash flows occur at the end of the period, not at the beginning of the period.

WE KNOW THAT NPV FOR AN ANNUITY IS CALCULATED AS FOLLOWS:

Initial investment: amount, minus sign, CFi

Annual cash inflow: amount, CFi1

Number of periods: number of periods, second function, Ni

Cost of capital: number, i

Find NPV: second function, NPV

NOW YOU NEED TO PLUG IN THE NUMBERS:

NPV for annuity:

Initial investment: 15000, minus sign, CFi

Annual cash inflow: 3000, CFi1

Number of periods: 8, second function, Ni

Cost of capital: 8, i

Find NPV: second function, NPV

= $2,239.92

The above calculation makes it clear that project A is an acceptable project for ABC because the NPV is higher than zero ($2,239.92).

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