Book value per share

Book value per share is a value that common stock holders would have received if all assets of the firm were sold for its accounting value and if all liabilities were settled and residual value divided among common stock holders.

In other words, it is a book value of the firm (the net worth of the company, which is assets minus liabilities) divided by the number of shares of common stock outstanding.

The following formula is used to calculate book value per share:

Book value per share = TA-TL/Number of shares of common stock outstanding

Where TA is Total Assets and TL is total liabilities.

Book value per share method is criticized because it relies on historical data and does not take into account the future-expected earnings of the firm. Therefore, it does not reflect the real market value of the firm.

 

Financial Position Statement Format (Balance Sheet)

As we mentioned earlier, a balance sheet (financial position statement) is one of the most important financial statements. Other important financial statements include the income statement, cash flow statement and statement of changes in equity. A balance sheet (financial position statement) outlines the financial position of the company at a given point in time. It is often called a “snapshot” of the company’s financial position.

Below we present the general format of the balance sheet (financial position statement). We also explain the items in the balance sheet.

General balance sheet format


(1) ASSETS

(1.1) Current assets comprise:

Cash

+

Marketable securities

+

Accounts receivable

+

Inventories

=

Total current assets

(1.2) Non-current assets (fixed assets) comprise

Land and buildings

+

Machinery and equipment

+

Vehicles

+

Fixtures and Furniture

+

Other (for example financial leases)

=

Total gross fixed assets

Less: Accumulated depreciation

=

Net fixed assets

+

Other assets (investments, goodwill, copyrights and patents)

=

TOTAL ASSETS

(2) LIABILITIES AND (3) EQUITY

Liabilities comprise current and non-current liabilities:

(2.1) Current liabilities:

Accrued expenses

+

Accounts payable

+

Short-term notes (notes payable)

=

Total current liabilities

(2.2) Non-current liabilities

Mortgage

+

Other long-term debt

=

Total Non-current liabilities

(3) Equity comprises:

Common stock

+

Paid-in capital in excess of par on common stock

+

Preferred stock

+

Retained earnings

=

TOTAL EQUITY

=

TOTAL LIABILITIES AND EQUITY

Assets


CURRENT ASSETS

Current assets are listed first in the balance sheet (financial position statement). Current assets are those that can be converted into cash within 12 months. The main reason why small businesses often experience financial trouble is inefficient management of current assets. That is, they run out of cash. This can happen for such reasons as having insufficient cash on hand or underestimating the amount of time it takes to liquidate assets to create cash.

Marketable securities, also often called “near cash”, are liquid securities such as US Treasury bills.

Accounts payable refer to money that has not yet been received from the firm’s debtors. Debtors are the firm’s customers who bought from the firm on credit and still need to pay for a product or service provided.

Inventories refer to the raw materials, products in the process of production and completed products ready for sale. Basically, inventory is the physical products the business intends to sell.

In the balance sheet (financial position statement), the most liquid assets are usually listed before less liquid assets. That is why we also listed current assets in terms of decreasing liquidity: cash, marketable securities, accounts receivable and inventories.

NON-CURRENT ASSETS OR FIXED ASSETS

After current assets are listed, we can list non-current assets in the balance sheet. Non-current assets or fixed assets refer to assets that cannot be converted into cash within a 12 months period. The majority of fixed assets are depreciable. It means that the cost of the asset is allocated over its useful life and deducted as expenses on the income statement. This decreases the amount of tax the firm has to pay.

On the balance sheet we need to show the net fixed assets, which refer to the gross fixed assets (assets before depreciation is taken into account) less accumulated depreciation (depreciation deducted over the useful life of the asset, up to this point). The net fixed assets of the firm is also referred to as the book value.

OTHER ASSETS

Other assets show assets on the balance sheet that do not fit under the first two categories and include such assets as goodwill, copyrights and patents. For some companies this can contribute a sizable portion, if not the majority, of their value.

Liabilities and equity


The second part of the balance sheet presents how the business was financed. It basically shows from which sources assets were financed. The two main sources of financing are debt and equity.

CURRENT LIABILITIES

We start the second part of the balance sheet with current liabilities. Current liabilities include accrued expenses, accounts payable and short-term notes.

Accrued expenses are expenses which the company is obligated to pay within 12 months and includes such items as salaries and wages.

Accounts payable refer to payments that company is still obligated to make within 12 months to the creditors which supplied their product on credit to the company.

Short-term notes refer to the money that must be repaid to the lenders within 12 months.

LONG-TERM LIABILITIES

The next step in compiling the balance sheet requires us to list long-term liabilities. Long-term liabilities refer to debt payment which is due in a period longer than 12 months.

EQUITY

The last step in compiling the balance sheet requires us to illustrate the equity position of the firm. Equity indicates the claims of firm’s owners on the firm.

Items “common stock” and “paid-in capital in excess of par on common stock” indicate the amount paid by common stock shareholders for their shares of common stock.

Preferred stock shows the amount of money received from issuing preferred stock.

Retained earning show the earnings of the firm which were not distributed in the form of dividends to the shareholders.

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Overview of the Balance Sheet (Financial Position Statement)

A balance sheet – financial position statement is one of the most important financial statements. Other important financial statements include the income statement, cash flow statement and statement of changes in equity.

A balance sheet is the financial position of the company at a given point in time. It is often called a “snapshot” of the company’s financial position.

How to think about a balance sheet (financial position statement)


A good way to compare the balance sheet statement, income statement and cash-flow statement is to think of a river leading to a dam. The income statement and a cash-flow statement record the movement of money over a specific period of time. It is similar to recording the volume flowing down a river over a specific period. The balance sheet – financial position statement is the dam. Everything collects there.

Therefore, by looking at the balance sheet we can see how everything comes together at a given point in time. If the company is reporting strong cash-flow in the statement of cash-flows, then that cash must be collecting somewhere, in the balance sheet. Provided a balance sheet is constructed honestly and correctly, it is a wonderful source of information about the company. Like a dam, any poisonous material or waste, gets washed down into the balance sheet. Therefore, paying careful attention to the balance sheet (financial position statement) allows to evaluate important information about the company.

Understanding the balance sheet (financial position statement)


To understand the balance sheet (financial position statement), one first needs to understand the difference between assets and liabilities. A simple explanation is as follows: if you take an unpaid vacation or are between jobs for a while, assets will or will have the potential of adding money to your bank account every month. Liabilities, however, will deduct money from your bank.

For example, if you own a fully paid-off house, which is currently empty, this is an asset. You may choose to earn money from this asset by renting it out. Therefore, even if you are not working, you will have rental income generated from your asset. However, if you leased an expensive car and lost your job, the bank will still deduct money from your bank account every month. Therefore, this is a liability. Alternatively, if the car is fully paid-off, it is an asset and you could generate income from it.

We also can define assets and liabilities more formally.

ASSETS

Assets are any tangible or intangible economic resources that a company or individual possesses and which can be used to cover the individual’s or company’s debt. For example, in the case of an individual, retirement savings and stocks are examples of assets. In the case of a company, fully owned equipment and buildings are examples of assets.

As represented on the balance sheet, current assets are assets which are excepted to be converted into cash within 12 months and non-current assets are assets which are expected to be converted into cash at some point in the future which is longer than 12 months.

LIABILITIES

Liability is a legal obligation to settle debt which arises as a result of a past transaction or event. A liability should, by law, be settled at a specified future period or over a specified period and, possibly, at specified intervals.

As represented on the balance sheet, current liabilities are debts which must be settled within 12 months and non-current liabilities are debts which must be settled at some point in the future which is longer than 12 months.

An example of personal liability can be a personal loan that must be repaid to the bank. Company liability examples include accrued expenses such as wages as well as long-term loans.