8 Specific Motives for Mergers and Acquisitions

Mergers are undertaken if it is believed two or more companies which are merging will be greater together than sum of its parts. The math of a merger is “1+1=3” or “2+2=5”. Specific motives for mergers for strategic and financial reasons include the following:

Tax advantages – Tax advantages in mergers will differ from one location to another. In US it can be utilized if the acquiring firm or target company has a tax loss carry-forward. Tax loss carry-forward refers to the ability to deduct past losses from the taxable income. This advantage is available in mergers but not for holding companies. To decrease the attractiveness of this motive, the US and many other countries limit the amount of tax loss carry-forward that can be deducted annually from the taxable income of merged companies.

For example, assume the acquiring company is a profitable company and the target company is a loss maker which incurred losses in the past two years. When the merger is completed, the operating results of a merged company, which probably will have the identity of the acquiring company, will be reported on a consolidated basis.

This means the acquiring company will be able to deduct past losses of the target company from the consolidated taxable income, within limits. Merged firms will continue deducting the tax loss carry-forward (within limits) until it is recovered completely over a duration of up to 20 years.

Increases liquidity for owners – If the acquiring firm is a large company and target company is a small organization then the target company’s shareholders may find it very appealing that after merger their shares’ liquidity and marketability will likely be considerably better.

Gaining access to funds – The acquiring company may have high financial leverage (a lot of debt) thereby making access to additional external debt financing very limited. Therefore, one of the motives of the acquiring company to undertake the merger is to merge with a company which has a healthy liquidity position with low or non-existent financial leverage (very little or no debt).

Growth – This is one of the most common motives for mergers. It may be cheaper and less risky for the acquiring company to merge with another provider in a similar line of business than to expand operations internally. It is also much faster to grow by acquisition.

Sometimes an organization may have a window of opportunity that will be closing fast and the only way the organization can take advantage of this opportunity is by acquiring a company with competencies and resources necessary to take advantage of the opportunity. Additional benefits of growth motivated mergers are that a competitor or potential future competitor is eliminated.

Diversification – Diversification is an external growth strategy and sometimes serves as a motive for a merger. For example, if an organization operates in a volatile industry, it may decide to undertake a merger to hedge itself against fluctuations in its own market. Another example can be when an acquiring company pursues a target company which is located in different state or country. This is called a geographical diversification.

Related diversification seems to have a better track record. It refers to expanding in the current market or entering new markets and adding related new products and services to the product or service line of the acquiring company.

Diversification usually does not deliver value to the shareholders because they can diversify their portfolio on their own at much lower cost. Therefore, diversification on its own is unlikely to be sufficient motive for a merger.

Synergistic benefits – Synergy occurs when the whole is greater than sum of its parts. For example, in terms of math it could be represented as “1+1=3” or as “2+2=5”. Within the context of mergers, synergy means the performance of firms after a merger (in certain areas and overall) will be better than the sum of their performances before the merger. For example, a larger merged company may be able to order larger quantities from suppliers and obtain greater discounts due to the size of the order.

In the context of mergers, there can be two types of synergy. The first type of synergy results in economies of scale, which refers to decreased costs. Another type of synergyresults in increased revenues such as cross-selling.

As per the above, economies of scale are derived from synergy. For example, merging businesses in the same business line will allow elimination of some of the duplicated overhead costs. A new business will not need two human resources and public relations departments. Instead, the best employees will be kept and the rest of personnel and unused office space will be reallocated or no longer used.

Cross-selling is another benefit derived from synergy. If some of the products and services of merged companies differ then cross-selling those products and services to the other firm’s customer base can be a cost effective way to increase sales. Being able to effectively meet more of the customers’ needs may also increase customer loyalty due to higher customer satisfaction which can occur by effectively providing customers with a broader spectrum of products and services which meet customers’ needs.

Synergy benefits with regard to an increase in revenue are usually more difficult to achieve than synergy benefits with regard to decreasing costs. Management also needs to be careful to ensure that potential synergy benefits are not overestimated as this may result in overpayment for the target company.

Protection against a hostile takeover – Defensive acquisition is one of the hostile takeover defense strategies that may be undertaken by target of the hostile takeover to make itself less attractive to the acquiring company. In such a situation, the target company will acquire another company as a defensive acquisition and finance such an acquisition through adding substantial debt. Due to the increased debt of the target company, the acquiring company, which planned the hostile takeover, will likely lose interest in acquiring the now highly leveraged target company. Before a defensive acquisition is undertaken, it is important to make sure that such action is better for shareholders’ wealth than a merger with the acquiring company which started off the whole process by proposing a hostile takeover.

Acquisition of required managerial skills, assets or technology – The target company may have managerial skills, assets and/or technology that the acquiring company needs to improve its performance, profits, revenue, cut costs, reduce productivity etc. This can become a motive for merger.

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Types of Corporate Restructuring

Mergers and Consolidations

Consolidation is a type of corporate restructuring and occurs when two or more organizations come together to form a completely new corporation. This new corporation typically include all assets and liabilities of the combined separate companies. Consolidations usually occur between organizations of similar size.

Merger is also a type of corporate restructuring and occurs when two or more organizations merge into one. Organizations that merged into one usually maintain the identity of most important organization.

Merger often involves one or more smaller organizations merging into a larger organization and becoming part of that larger organization. Merging involves absorption of assets and liabilities of all firms merged. Mergers also can be called acquisitions, buyouts or takeovers.

Within a merger, the acquiring company (generally larger and more important company) usually will approach a target company (smaller and less important company) to arrange a merger.

Sometimes, however, the target company may approach acquiring company. The key outcome that the acquiring company seeks from a merger is synergy, leverage, key staff, technology or even preventing a competitor from acquiring a particular company.

Government and mergers

Governments regulate mergers. The main concern of the government is to ensure that competition is not eliminated. This concern is especially relevant if one direct competitor attempts to acquire another direct competitor. Such a merger could result in higher prices for consumers and lower output of combined organizations (fewer product or service options or inferior customer service). If such a situation occurs then population may end up worse off than it was before the merger.

Mergers, of course, also may provide social benefits. Such benefits include economies of scale and scope, better utilization of resources, higher output and improved quality.

Therefore, government usually prohibits only those mergers in which anticompetitive disadvantages outweigh social benefits.

Hostile and Friendly mergers (takeovers)

Hostile merger (hostile takeover) usually occurs when the acquiring company approaches target company but management of the target company or the board of directors of the target company do not support the proposal for acquisition. In such a situation, the target company may take actions to make it harder or impossible for the hostile merger to take place by executing hostile merger defence strategies.

Acquiring company then attempts to obtain the required amount of shares in the market place via tender offers. Tender offers refer to formal offers made to the shareholders in the market place to obtain a certain amount of shares at a given price which is above the current market price.

The acquiring company may also undertake a creeping tender offer by silently purchasing enough shares in the market place before making their intentions known.

Hostile mergers (hostile takeover) also occurs if the acquiring company approached shareholders directly without firstly approaching the management and board of directors of the target company.

Another way a hostile merger can occur is if the acquiring company engages in a proxy fight by trying to obtain support of enough shareholders to replace management with new management which will endorse the takeover.

Certainly hostile mergers are more difficult to undertake. The acquiring company may struggle to obtain a loan if it needs to borrow to finance a hostile takeover as banks usually are not supportive of hostile takeovers.

The acquiring company is also at greater risk under a hostile takeover because it cannot undertake an in depth due diligence of the target company and will have to rely completely on the publicly available information to make a decision to acquire a target company. Nevertheless, hostile takeovers also take place.

Friendly merger (friendly takeover) involves a situation where the acquiring company approaches the management of the target company with the proposal for acquisition. If management supports such an acquisition and if the board of directors sees a merger to be in best interests of shareholders, then the board makes such a recommendation to the shareholders. If shareholders approval is obtained then a friendly merger occurs and it is completed by the acquiring company obtaining shares in the target company.

Motives for mergers

Any action undertaken by business must be based on achieving the main objective of the enterprise which is the wealth maximization of the owners of the enterprise.

The main objective of a merger should be the same as the main objective of the firm. Namely, the maximization of the owners’ wealth by improving the share value.

There are two driving forces for mergers, which should be consistent with the main objective. They include strategic and financial reasons.

Under a strategic merger the performance of firms after the merger is higher than performance of firms before merger. The strategic merger involves economies of scale due to combining two or more firms to achieve greater productivity and profitability.

Financial mergers are conducted due to a perception by the acquiring company that the target company can be managed and structured better after acquisition. In this way the acquiring company anticipates to unlock unrealized value from the target company. Such mergers rely significantly on debt to finance acquisition. A leveraged buyout (LBOs) is an example of financial mergers. Strategic mergers are more prevalent than financial mergers.

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Corporate Restructuring

Corporate restructuring is the process of reorganizing the ownership, legal, operating or any other structures of the company. It may involve expansion or contraction of the operations of the business.

There are various types of corporate restructuring such as mergers, consolidations and leveraged buyouts (LBOs). Successfully restructured organization should result in an increase of the owners’ wealth and more effective operations.

Restructuring can be necessary in various situations. Some of the reasons are as follows.

  • If company was the target of a leveraged buyout than it is likely to be restructured by the new owner and sold for a profit after the restructuring is successfully completed.
  • Restructuring can also be necessary in situations when the organization became too large, to the point that the structure established for the organization earlier can no longer support the operations of the organization.
  • If an organization grows to be too large for its current structure, restructuring may allow the organization to make its operations more efficient. For example, some parts of the organization can be converted into subsidiaries to obtain tax advantages and to ensure more effective management of the operations.
  • Another situation which may require restructuring is an organization struggling to survive. Such a situation can occur for various reasons such as the downturn in the economy, market entry of an unexpectedly strong competitor or revolutionary changes in technology which make some of the business’s product offerings obsolete. Contraction of the operations of such an organization may be necessary to ensure that the business can continue its existence and start rebuilding itself from the size it can currently sustain.

There are of course many more reasons why an organisation can be restructured. In general, restructuring implies the organization will continue its operations in one way or another.



Purchase versus Lease Decision

When deciding on whether to purchase or lease an asset, a firm should compare after-tax cash outflows associated with each option. The option with the lowest present value of after-tax cash outflows should be selected.

To make a decision between purchase and lease alternatives, we need to do the following:

  • Determine after-tax cash outflows for lease alternatives.
  • Determine after-tax cash outflows for purchase alternatives.
  • When completing steps 1 and 2,  the purchase option at the end of the lease should be incorporated into analysis in step 1 and sale of purchased asset at the end of the term (equivalent to the lease term) should be incorporated in analysis in step 2. This will ensure that we compare assets of equal lives.
  • Find the present value of the cash outflows under lease and purchase. The after-tax cost of debt should be used as a discount rate. One can use a financial calculator to find present value of the mixed stream of outflows or find the present value of the annuity.
  • Select an option with the lowest present value.

It is also important to remember that financial manager must always attempt to find options with the lowest cost of capital to ensure maximization of the owners’ wealth.

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Financial Lease (Capital Lease)

Finance lease (also called financial lease or capital lease) refers to the lease of the asset where the useful life is closely aligned to the term of the lease. The lease term is longer than operating lease. Finance leases are usually leases for an asset which does not become technologically obsolete. Under a capital lease, the lessee is usually responsible for all maintenance and other costs. Comparatively, under an operational lease, lessor is usually responsible for such costs.

A lessor purchases an asset selected by the lessee. The lessee will be able to use the asset during the duration of the lease agreement as long as contractual, periodic and timely payments are made by lessee to the lessor.

At the end of the term, the lessee may have a purchase option which allows the lessee to acquire an ownership of the asset. The lessee is not allowed to cancel the lease which makes a financial lease similar to long-term debt. If a lessee misses contractual or periodic payments, the lessee may be forced into bankruptcy.

Because under a finance lease, the lessee may have some ownership of the asset with some risks and benefits that comes with ownership, a finance lease must be recorded as a capitalized lease. This refers to recording the present value of all contractual payments and assets and corresponding liabilities on the balance sheet.

Under a finance lease, the firm benefits from the tax-deductibility of the interest paid on the leased asset as well as from depreciation of the leased asset which is recorded as an expense on the firm’s income statement.

This leads to increases in the debt/equity ratio and therefore an increase in financial leverage compared to an operational lease. It also leads to a decrease in working capital due to an increase in current liabilities.

Moreover, part of the payments due to a financial lease are recorded as a reduction in lease liability under operating cash flows and part is recorded as lease interest payments under financing cash flows. This leads to an increase in operating cash flow compared to records under operating lease where only operating cash flow is affected.

Because firms have an incentive to report leases as operational leases, certain regulatory rules were established by Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) which specify which assets can qualify for operational leases. The following is a list of characteristics of financial leases. If even one of such characteristic is met than an asset should be recorded as financial lease.

  • A lease term is 75% or more of the useable life of the asset.
  • At the commencement of the lease agreement, the present value of the lease payments is equal to 90% or more of the fair market value of the leased asset.
  • Ownership of the asset is transferred to the lessee at the maturity of the lease agreement.
  • A lease agreement contains an option to purchase the asset at the “bargain price” which must be the fair market value.

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Operating and Financial Leases (Capital Leases)

Within an accounting context, a lease can be classified as an operating lease or a financial lease.

Operating lease (service lease) refers to a short-term lease of an asset with a useful life longer than the term of the lease. For example, this applies when fixed assets with a useful life of 15 years are leased for 3 years. This type of lease is common for fixed assets with a longer useful life but which become less efficient and even technologically obsolete relatively fast, such as computer systems and office equipment.

Operating leases usually can be cancelled but generally a cancellation penalty will apply. They also usually include maintenance clauses which require the lessor to conduct maintenance of the asset as well as tax and insurance payments.

Operational leases usually include a renewal option since the economic life of the asset is generally relatively longer than the lease term. This allows the lessee to renew the lease of the asset at the end of the term of the lease. A purchase option may be included at the end of the lease which will allow the lessee to acquire the asset.

Under an operating lease, a lessor transfers to lessee only the right to use the asset. The lessee does not have any level of ownership over the asset. Under an operating lease, periodic payments, as per the lease agreement, are recorded as expenses in the income statement. Operating lease expense is not recorded in the balance sheet.

Consequently, under an operating lease (compared to capital lease), financial ratios present misleading results. For example, leverage ratios are understated because no liability is recorded associated with the lease. For example, the debt-equity ratio is lower and so is the debt ratio. The times interest earned ratio is higher because under an operating lease, depreciation is not recorded.

Liquidity ratios are also affected. Both, the current ratio and quick (Acid-Test) ratio are overstated because the lease is not reflected in current liabilities. Moreover, the ROA profitability ratio is overstated because total assets are not affected under an operating lease.

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Advantages & Disadvantages of Leasing

Advantages of Leasing

  • Businesses avoid large capital outlays when acquiring the use of an asset, thereby freeing up cash for more productive uses.
  • In the case of the start ups, leasing also helps to ascertain a business’s asset requirements before purchase of assets is made. As an example, a business can rent a building space for a year to obtain a better understanding of the business’s building requirements before committing to purchasing a space.
  • Leasing offers flexibility, especially with assets which tend to become obsolete very fast.
  • Leasing does not result in restrictions on company’s financial operations due to loan covenants.
  • If firm experiences liquidity problem, it can lease back an asset to the lessor that the firm already owns. Sale-leaseback arrangements consist of selling an asset to the lessor and leasing it back. Such action can the improve liquidity of the firm.
  • If the firm will go bankrupt or if it is undertaking reorganization, the firm is better off if assets are leased because the lessor can claim a maximum of 3 years worth of lease payments. Lenders, on the other hand, can claim the entire outstanding debt.
  • Leases usually do not require down payment. Therefore, lease provides 100% financing. In comparison, when an asset is purchased, lenders often usually require down payment of 10% or at least 5% of the asset.
  • Under operational lease some financial ratios look better because the asset is not capitalized, which refers to asset not being recorded in the balance sheet as an asset and corresponding liability.
  • Lease can be undertaken as a hedge against rapid obsolescence of equipment.
  • Leasing allows the revenue generated by the asset to provide funds for the payment for the asset. This benefit is especially relevant for start ups which usually have very limited resources.
  • Organizations can adjust the term of the lease for the duration of time when the leased asset is planned to be used and then update the asset when required.
  • Leasing provides organizations with options. Under a lease agreement the organization may have options of returning the asset, renewing the lease or purchasing the asset.
  • It is usually easier to obtain a lease that to obtain a loan to purchase the asset.
  • Leases may offer tax advantages which depend on how the lease is structured.

Disadvantages of leasing

  • Purchase is likely to be preferred to lease if the asset is planned to be used for a long duration of time without renewal of asset.
  • If the business no longer requires an asset or if the asset becomes obsolete before the end of the lease term, it may be expensive and very difficult to terminate the lease before the end of the contract. If asset is owned, it may be easier to make appropriate arrangements to sell or rent out the unnecessary or obsolete asset.
  • Although the initial large cash outlay is avoided, over the long-term the lease may account for a larger capital outlay than if firm purchased an asset instead.

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A lease is a contract between tenant (a lessee) and owner (a lessor) of the asset which allows the tenant to use owner’s property over specified period of time in exchange for periodic payments which the lessee makes to lessor. The contract must be signed by both lessee and lessor and is usually called a lease agreement.

Leases can be arranged for both tangible and intangible assets. Lease of tangible assets is lease of assets that one can see and touch and includes assets such as automobiles, buildings and equipment. Lease of intangible assets is a lease of assets that one cannot see and touch. An example will be a lease of use of a radio frequency.

Leasing is a substitute for purchase of a fixed asset. It is one of the ways in which an organization can finance its assets. It allows the firm to make use of an asset in exchange for contractual periodic payments which are tax deductible.


Agency problem and agency costs

Agency costs refer to costs which arise due to an agency problem. Agency problem, which is also called principal–agent problem or agency dilemma, occurs when an agent acts on behalf of the principal. The problem arises because agents’ interests and priorities may be different from that of the principal.

Agency costs are costs that a principal incurs to decrease or eliminate the agency problem by providing agent with incentive to act in the best interests of the principal as well as by monitoring the agent’s actions to ensure the agent is acting honestly and in the best interests of the principal.

In the context of an organization

In the context of an organization, agency costs refer to the costs of eliminating or decreasing the agency problem which arises due to management (agent) acting on behalf of shareholders (principal).

Agency problem, in the context of an organization, refers to the tendency of management to pursue its own needs as a first priority, which may be at the expense of the needs of the shareholders.

Agency costs include costs which arise due to maintenance of corporate governance structure of the organization. The goal is to give the management incentive to treat the needs of shareholders as a priority as well as ensuring honest dealings of management and monitoring management’s performance.

A typical example of agency costs occurs when rewards of management are tied to shareholders’ wealth maximization or performance of the company.

As an example, to tie rewards of management to the shareholders’ wealth maximization management may be given portion of shares of the company. Therefore, management becomes shareholders as well and their needs and interests become more aligned with other shareholders.

Alternatively, management is given stock options which will allow purchasing stock at the market price set at the time when stock options are granted at some point in the future. This gives management an incentive to be interested in shareholders’ wealth maximization since management will be able to benefit from it personally by buying appreciated shares at some point in the future at the price set at the time stock options were granted (at the lower price).

To tie rewards of management to the performance of the company, management may be evaluated based on their ability to achieve certain measures such as EPS. Performance shares or cash bonus may be given to reward management for meeting specific performance measures.

The other ways which help to decrease the agency problem in organisations is the pressure that shareholders place on the management and negative implications which will materialize if management cannot meet shareholders’ expectations.

Another factor that helps to decrease the agency problem in organisations is the threat of takeover by an individual, group or company which believes that company could be managed better. It serves as impetus for management to work harder in meeting shareholders’ needs.

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Stock repurchases (share buyback)

Stock repurchases is a form of dividends. If stock repurchases are made instead of cash payment, it increases the earnings per share of current shareholders and it increases the market price per share.

Market price per share increases because earnings available for distribution to shareholders are now divided among fewer shareholders. Share price also increases because when a firm is buying back its shares it sends a positive signal to the market that management considers shares undervalued. Of course, repurchasing stock is especially beneficial for firm to undertake if the share price is really perceived by management to be undervalued.

Repurchase of stock also discourages unfriendly takeovers. This happens firstly because takeover can be attractive due to a company’s liquidity position. If a company has a lot of cash, it can be used to cover the debt undertaken to finance the acquisition. By using available cash to repurchase stock, a firm decreases its attractiveness as a takeover target. Moreover, repurchase of shares increases the price per share which makes takeover more expensive.

Another benefit of repurchase of stock is that it delays the tax liability of the shareholders. If cash dividends are paid out to the shareholders, then shareholders will have to pay part of it to the government as taxes. Repurchase of stock delays taxes that shareholders will be liable for until capital gain is realized, which occurs when shareholder sells stock.

Agency problem also have something to do with managements’ incentive to repurchase stock. Executive’s rewards are often tied to performance measures such as earnings per share. If firms have fewer shares outstanding and earnings stay the same than its earnings per share will inevitably increase.

Therefore, a part of the agency cost that firm has to incur is due to a necessity to monitor management actions to ensure that stock is not repurchased because an executive’s compensation is tied to EPS measure.

Repurchase of stock also allows a firm to have shares available for employee stock option plans. Buying back shares also temporarily provides a higher floor for the stock price.

Shares repurchase methods

The most common share repurchase method is purchasing shares on the open market. A second option is to negotiate with major stockholders to purchase a large bulk of shares. Another option is a formal fixed price tender offer that can be made to purchase shares at above market price.

Dutch auction tender offer, which originated in 1981, is another option to repurchase stock. This option entails invitation to shareholders to tender their shares at prices within  ranges established by the firm. The firm will try to purchase shares at the lowest possible prices. Thus, if more than enough shares are tendered then shares will be purchased up to a certain price at which an adequate amount of shares will be available. If not enough of shares are tendered then firm can either cancel the offer or buy back all the shares tendered.

Under every method of shares repurchase the reasons behind repurchase of shares must be clearly stated to the shareholders. The intention as to how repurchased shares are intended to be used should also be communicated. For example, it can be used for executive compensation or for trading it in exchange for shares of another firm.

In conclusion, companies need to maintain a target payout ratio which is suitable for the company’s needs. Organizations must also try not to neglect acceptable projects (with NPV higher than zero and IRR greater than weighted marginal cost of capital) to pay out large dividends. The main objective, as always, should be owner’s wealth maximization.

Also it is important to remember that whereas it is important to try not to decrease dividends to ensure that no negative signals are sent to the market, it is also important to maintain a healthy liquidity position. Organizations certainly should not borrow to be able to pay out large dividends.